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The first thing we must point out before detailing some of the standard rules is that each municipality can set their own rules, although some national legislation establishes a minimum criterion, and the local rules are generally to enforce stricter compliance. Therefore, is it crucial that you check with your local authority as to what their established norms are for using e-scooters (or any VMP), before you use them.

That does mean that the rules can be different from one municipality to the next, however VMP’s are not permitted on interurban roads, the roads that connect municipalities, so it would not be normal to cross borders in this way.

In principle, the use of a helmet is dictated by each municipality. However, it is always highly recommended that you wear a suitable helmet on one of these vehicles.

As a general rule, we should travel with our electric scooters on bike lanes, where available, otherwise on the road, keeping to the right at all times and observing all signs and signals.

VMP vehicles are not permitted on pedestrian areas, which includes pavements, plazas, squares, etc, but also includes pedestrian crossings, if you are crossing the road following the route of pedestrians. In this case, you should be walking with the vehicle.

It is not (currently) mandatory to have insurance, but this again is highly recommended. Some municipalities do insist on this and so, again, you need to check locally. This is something that is still being considered on a national level. It is important because if you are involved in an incident which is deemed your fault, you will be personally liable for any damages, enforceable through the courts.

Drivers of e-scooters, any VMP, are subject to all normal traffic rules, which includes alcohol limits. For those under 18, the limit is zero.

Similarly, you must not use a mobile phone when driving, nor are you allowed to have headphones or earpieces in.

High visibility clothing is recommended at all times, and is mandatory during times of poor visibility, such as at night, or in poor weather. Again, some town halls have made this a compulsory requirement at all times.

Driving an electric scooter under the influence of alcohol and other drugs can result in a fine between €500 and €1,000 depending on the level of alcohol or €1,000 if drugs are involved. If the test is positive, the vehicle will also be immobilised, as is the case with the rest of the vehicles.

For using a mobile phone while driving a scooter or any other communication device, the fine will be €200.

For those who wear headphones, drive at night without lighting or reflective clothing, or if they do not wear a helmet, if the municipal ordinance contemplates this measure as mandatory, the fine will be €200.

Finally, although there are many other rules which you should consult before driving one of these vehicles, it is important to not that the “P” in VMP means “personal”, that is to say that these vehicles are exclusively designed for a single person to use. You must never carry passengers.

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